Chola Kingdom: Administration, Art and Architecture

Chola Kingdom: Administration, Art and Architecture

The Chola Dynasty turned into a distinguished Tamil Dynasty that ruled in general in the south of India until the 13th century. Among the rulers, Karikala Chola changed into the maximum well-known most of the early Chola kings. The Chola Dynasty has a number of the high-quality specimens in bronze and other sculptures i.e. Dancing Nataraj statue Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjaur (Tamil Nadu) are excellent example of the same.

Chola Administration

The capital of the Cholas become Tanjore (Thanjavur.). The Chola Empire changed into divided into three most important administrative gadgets called Central Government, Provincial authorities and nearby authorities in Prachin Bharat Ka itihas. Uttaramerur inscriptions throw mild at the management of the Cholas.

The management changed into headed via the king. The Chola kingship became hereditary in nature. As according to the Chola royal family lifestyle, the eldest son succeeded the king to the Chola throne. The heir obvious become known as Yuvaraja. The tiger become the royal brand of Chola kings. The king changed into assisted in his paintings by means of a council of ministers. The lower officials were known as Siruntaram while higher officials have been called Peruntaram.

The entire Empire have been divided into 9 provinces referred to as mandalams. Each province was headed through a viceroy who received orders from the king.

Each Mandalam became divided into wide variety of Kottams or Valanadus which was similarly sub-divided into Nadu. Each Nadu turned into further divided into villages called Urs.

Chola authorities depended mainly on the land revenue as the main source of earnings. 1/6 of the land produce became collected as tax. Besides land revenue, customs and tolls had been the other source of earnings for the empire. Moreover, taxes on ports, forests and mines contributed to the treasure of the king.

The Cholas possessed an efficient army and army. The army become made of 70 regiments. Chola kings imported pretty efficient Arabian horses at a totally excessive charge.

The Chola king acted because the chief justice, because the trial in important instances were carried out through the king himself. The minor disputes on the village level had been heard via the village meeting.

One of the maximum crucial administrative gadgets of the Cholas changed into Nadu. Each Nadu become headed by means of a Nattar whilst the council of Nadu was named Nattavai. The duty of the village management turned into entrusted to the village meeting referred to as Grama Sabha, the bottom unit of the Chola administration. It became involved inside the protection of roads, tanks, temples and public ponds. The village meeting become also in price of payment of taxes due from the villages to the King’s treasure.

The village administration became carried on efficiently via Variyams who was once the male individuals of the society. There have been styles of Variams. For example the justice become administered by way of Niyaya Variyam whilst temples have been looked after via the Dharma variyan. The control of the finance become given to the Pon Variyam.

Chola Architecture

The structure in Chola Empire flourished and reached its fruits submit 850 AD. The most sophisticated buildings in the form of temples have been built during this period.

The major capabilities of the Chola structure are as following:-

• The Shiva Temple of Thanjore/Thanjavur, the most important and tallest of all Indian temples was built throughout Chola length.
• The Chola Temples had the Dvarapalas or mum or dad figures at the doorway to the Mandapa (hall).
• The temples had fully advanced Dravidian Style.
• Ganas have been the most memorable figures made in the temples.

Some of the famous temples built at some point of Vijayalaya Cholisvara Temple are as following:

The Vijayalaya Cholisvara temple at Narthamalai was built during Vijayalaya Chola’s reign became committed to lord Shiva.

Koranganatha Temple, Srinivasanallur was built with the aid of Parantaka Chola-I on the banks of river Cauvery. It is positioned at Srinivasanallur. The legendary animal Yazhi, unique and routine feature of Chola structure has been sculpted at the base of the temple. Brihadeeswarar Temple or Peruvudaiyar Kovil or Rajrajeshwaram temple is built absolutely from granite. Built via Rajaraja Chola-I, it’s miles world’s first whole granite temple in addition to a part of UNESCO’s international background sites. It is located at Thanjavur.

Gangaikondacholapuram become constructed through Rajaraja’s son Rajendra I. Gangaikondacholapuram become erected as the brand new capital for Cholas to commemorate the victories of Rajendra I over the Chalukyas, Gangas, Palas and Kalinga.

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